According to Charles Darwin, random mutations added enough information to take life from bacteria to the Human Being or Homo Sapiens. Darwin never explained how life could come from non-life, but assured us the spontaneous creation of life from dead matter must have happened.
We’re a long way from Darwin now, who knew nothing of the complexity of DNA or even that life was controlled by a written code of information that directed each organism in its development. Acorns grow into Oak trees because their DNA code gives explicit instructions to do so. We now know that there is an incredible amount of variation in every individual organism as well as in all the organisms in any given animal kind or species. Much of this information is invisible to the human eye, and yet we know it is there, and we now realize that all mutations are not random, but some appear to be designed to trigger different cryptic genes which contain certain information. Darwin had no idea of this mass of genotype and thought that all changes he observed were new.
None the less we know that random mutations can occur and alter the genetics of any given species. We know that the mass of these mutations wreak havoc on the organism producing obvious disease and damage to species, which is why we go out of our way to avoid radiation, tobacco smoke and other mutagens. But we also know that some mutations can add resistance to insecticides for some insects or allow bacteria to live on a different type of nutrient than it previously could. We know that mutations can take place which allow animals to grow much bigger or smaller than their original parameters. None of these mutations produce the kind of changes needed to turn a bacteria into a human. But they do take place and are often used to suggest that Darwin’s theory might actually be able to account for the incredible amount of complex information we find on the earth.
Darwin always pointed to artificial selection as evidence for his theory. Dairy farmers who can breed cows who produce more milk or farmers who have bred larger types of grain and vegetables or other desirable traits into their crop were examples of his theory in action. However. While these changes can be the result of mutations to genes, the results always lead to an overall loss of information in the organism. They inevitably degrade the cells and genes overall ability to function and always have side effects which damage the animals or plants ability to survive under normal conditions.(Spetner)
As a Harvard professor has acknowledged;
“Artificial selection has always been a trade off between the genetic creation of traits desired by human beings and an unintended but inevitable genetic weakness in the face of natural enemies.” (Wilson), (Spetner)
For example, increasing growth in animals or vegetables comes from a mutation which damages the genes which specifically control growth. Some of these genes produce hormones that cause growth, and some produce hormones that inhibit growth. When these genes are damaged you may get a bigger product or more milk, but there is a price to pay for such gains. For one thing you have suffered damage to a finely tuned regulatory system, it has lost specificity not gained complexity. Your regulatory system is going down.
In humans we have seen that changes in the pituitary glands produce diabetes or fast growth beyond normal, a change which always leads to early death and other health problems. High producing dairy cows tend to lose fertility and grains pushed to produce high protein lose starch content and overall production. The same is true of the insects and bacteria that become resistant to certain insecticides and antibiotics. Studies have shown that the organisms ability to translate RNA codons into proteins is slowed, and the behavior of the organism is sluggish, less active and slower to respond to stimuli.(Spetner), (Rowland,87)
As Dr. Lee Spetner likes to point out;
“Information cannot be built by mutations that lose it.”
The difference in the genetic information between a bacteria and a human or butterfly or eagle is mind staggering. And the Darwinian theory that claims random damage to the genetic design of organisms is the process that initially built them, is no longer believable as a theory. Information demands Intelligence and someone had to write the blueprints initially. I think it’s safe to say that in biology, Moses trumps Darwin, hands down.
Spetner, Lee, Not by Chance, the Judaica Press, ’98
Rowland, M. W., Fitness of insecticide resistance, Nature, vol.327, p.194, 1987
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